Types Of Knee Surgery
In the medical field, various types of knee surgery are available to treat knee arthritis. Suppose you are experiencing this health condition, then you might be recommended by a doctor or surgeon for some surgery. Your age, anatomy, lifestyle, health, and personal preference determine which knee surgery types suit you.
Total Arthritis Knee Replacement Surgery (Total Knee Arthroplasty)
Replacing the entire knee can be an option for patients with moderate to severe knee arthritis and for whom non-surgical treatment does not work. In these knee surgery types, the ends of the tibia (shin bone) and femur (thigh bone) are cut and then capped with prostheses.
The two prosthetic pieces are made of metal or, in some cases, polyethene. The two pieces move smoothly against one another, thus making the knee functional again. The knee will recover partially in 4 to 6 weeks; for a full recovery, it might take around an entire month.
This arthritis knee surgery helps patients to get relief from knee pain and, at the same time, improve knee functionality. It is vital to take care of a replacement knee as it may not be as strong as a healthy knee. Arthritis knee replacement is recommended for patients who have recently undergone total replacement surgery to avoid high-impact activities such as jogging.
Partial Arthritis Knee Replacement Surgery (Uni-compartmental Knee Arthroplasty)
Partial replacement surgery is often referred to as unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. In this procedure, only one of the knee’s three compartments is replaced.
The three compartments of the knee are:
- The medial compartment refers to the inner knee. It is the part where a person’s knees touch when their legs are together.
- The lateral compartment is the outer knee.
- The patellofemoral compartment is found at the front of the knee, where the patella meets the femur.
In this surgery, the focus is to treat the arthritically damaged compartment of the knee joint and, at the same time, preserve healthy areas. Therefore, the surgery is suitable for a smaller section of patients. However, if your knee is not aligned correctly or you have severe arthritis, stiffness, ligament damage, or inflammatory arthritis, you may not be eligible for these knee surgery types.
Knee Osteotomy (Tibial Osteotomy or Femoral Osteotomy)
For those physically active people below 60 years whose poor knee alignment has led to wear and tear on just one side of the knee, knee osteotomy will be best. The condition is also referred to as unilateral knee arthritis or asymmetrical knee arthritis.
During this arthritis knee surgery, the surgeon marks a cut into the femur, tibia, or both. Then a small wedge of bone is removed, and in that place, a small wedge of natural graft or artificial bone material is inserted.
The knee osteotomy re-aligns the joint to push the pressure to the good side of the knee. It helps reduce wear and tear on the wrong side. The surgery aims to reduce the pain and slow down the progression. If the knee osteotomy is successful, then you delay the need for total knee replacement for about ten years.
After the surgery, the patient can participate in high-impact sports. However, it is major surgery with potential risk factors and complications. For anisotropic arthritis knee surgery, full recovery can take around a complete one or even a year.
For Arthroscopic surgery, only a small incision is needed. Your surgeon will insert a small video camera and surgical tools. During the procedure, they can also assess joint degeneration.
Knee debridement and lavage can also be performed. It includes the following process:
- The loose pieces of cartilage or bone that irritate are removed.
- Trim and smooth out the irregular or bumpy cartilage
- Remove inflamed synovial tissue.
- Lavage the joint that is to flush it with saline solution to clean out material that leads to irritation or swelling
Opinions differ on whether these types of ACL surgery or normal knee surgery are best suited or not. Moreover, if you are looking for different types of ACL surgery, come to Germanten Hospital. With the latest facilities and advanced technologies, our experts can help you with some of the best knee surgery types with little to no risks and complications.