Month: September 2023

22 Sep 2023
Five advantages of minimmaly invasive spine surgery

Five Advantages of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery or MISS is a surgical approach that aims at treating a wide variety of spinal conditions without impacting the surrounding muscles, tissues, and cells negatively. Compared with open surgery, minimally invasive spine surgery offers many benefits ranging from faster return to day-to-day activities and reduced hospital stay.

Here are the five primary benefits of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS):

1. Faster Recovery Time

The best and the most important advantage of minimally invasive spine surgery is that it doesn’t take months to recover from.

Unlike traditional open surgery, minimally invasive spine surgery does not involve making large incisions or openings in your body tissues for treatment. Moreover, the tissues surrounding the site of surgery also don’t undergo much disruption or damage because of the utilisation of smaller incisions or cuts in MISS.

Since larger incisions increase blood loss and give more trauma to the surrounding tissues, they not only cause a higher extent of pain but also take more time to heal and recover. Therefore, unlike open surgeries, minimally invasive spine surgery is done by making only small cuts.

As a result, due to lower wound formation, the intensity and the duration of pain decrease. Hence, because of decreased tissue damage and minimal trauma to the other body parts such as muscles, the overall time required to complete the surgery along with the duration of recovery decreases significantly.

Most patients who are treated using minimally invasive spine surgery get a discharge on the day of the operation itself. Faster discharge time means minimised hospital stay and a quicker start to your recovery period.

2. Less Painful Process

In minimally invasive spine surgery, the surgeon makes small incisions or cuts into your tissues and muscles to access and view the affected area for treatment.

The primary goal is to have a closer look and monitor the site of operation using specialized instruments consisting of microscopic video cameras. These cameras pass easily through the organs and tissues that are located in the deeper regions of your body such as—

Nerves of your spine
Spinal discs

MISS is performed using highly advanced tools and techniques that enable access to your affected tissues without causing much disturbance to the surrounding areas. These techniques are designed to invade your tissues minimally ultimately decreasing the damage that your nerves and muscles undergo.

Henceforth, since the muscles and nerves don’t have to go through a high degree of disruption, the pain in them is minimized. Less pain means reduced need for post-operative care and pain reliever medications.

As a result, the process is less painful and has a faster recovery time in comparison with traditional open spine surgeries.

3. Reduced Risk of Complications

Common complications associated with the traditional open spine surgeries include:

Adverse effects of anaesthesia that might result in heart stroke, brain damage, heart attack etc.

Excessive bleeding due to large cuts

Surgeries that are performed on the pelvis, calves and thighs may sometimes result in the formation of blood clots

Dural tears

Development of infections that cause pain and swelling at or near the site of operation

Minimally invasive surgery doesn’t expose a large surface of your muscles, nerves and tissues to the external environment consisting of contaminants and other chemical components used for treatment. So, the chances of the development of an infection at the incision site and the possibility of other adverse effects on the surrounding tissues are reduced.

Most importantly, since highly advanced imaging technology is utilized, precision is more due to better visualization. The enhanced precision contributes towards the elimination of the risk of complications associated with spine surgery.

4. Less Muscle Damage

In open surgery, in order to have access to the deeper tissues such as nerves, discs and vertebrae for operation, the surgeon needs to first remove the muscles that are located on their upper surface. Therefore, during the procedure, a lot of muscle damage happens before the actual surgery can take place.

The procedures used in minimally invasive spine surgery, in contrast, dilate (stretch and enlarge) these muscles instead of cutting and disrupting them. Hence, the maximum of your natural muscle structure is preserved giving you better muscle functionality and decreasing muscle weakness faced post-operation.

Overall, the level of muscle damage is much less in comparison with traditional open spine surgeries.

5. Better Cosmetic Outcomes

Small cuts generate less pain and heal faster. Apart from these, the visibility of scars caused by minimally invasive surgery is less and they tend to produce better cosmetic outcomes.

Particularly if the surgery has to be performed on the externally visible parts of your body, the presence of big and ugly scars that result from large incisions post-surgery can impact your self-esteem and decrease confidence.

Minimally invasive spine surgery helps you avoid the embarrassment of noticeable scarring and heal with confidence due to enhanced cosmetic results that cause much lesser scarring.

14 Sep 2023
Gastrointestinal problems among children

Gastrointestinal Problems Among Children

Gastrointestinal problems can affect children of all ages, from infants to adolescents. These conditions can cause discomfort, affect nutrition, and impact a child’s overall well-being. This article will provide an overview of common gastrointestinal problems among children, including their symptoms, causes, and potential treatment options.

Common Gastrointestinal Problems in Children: Overview and Management

Gastrointestinal problems among children are common and can affect various parts of the digestive system, including the oesophagus, stomach, intestines, and rectum. 

Some of the most common gastrointestinal problems in children include:

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

GERD occurs when stomach acid flows back into the oesophagus, causing heartburn, regurgitation, and discomfort. It can lead to discomfort, poor weight gain, and irritability in infants and young children.

Symptoms may include: 

  • Frequent Spitting Up
  • Irritability
  • Feeding Difficulties
  • Poor Weight Gain

Treatment may involve lifestyle modifications, medication, and feeding changes under the guidance of a pediatric gastroenterologist.


Constipation is characterised by infrequent bowel movements or difficulty passing stools. It can be caused by: 

  • A lack of fibre and fluids in the diet
  • Inadequate physical activity
  • Certain medications 

Symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating
  • Hard and dry stools

Chronic constipation can cause abdominal pain and discomfort.

Treatment may involve: 

  • Dietary changes (increasing fibre intake)
  • Adequate fluid intake
  • Sometimes medication or stool softeners


Diarrhoea is defined as loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than usual. 

It is often caused by: 

  • Viral or bacterial infections
  • Food poisoning
  • Food intolerance’s
  • Changes in diet
  • Certain medical conditions

In some cases, persistent diarrhoea can lead to dehydration.

Treatment typically focuses on: 

  • Rehydration
  • Maintaining a balanced diet
  • And, addressing the underlying cause if necessary

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten consumption. It causes damage to the small intestine, leading to digestive problems such as:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhoea
  • Poor nutrient absorption

Food Allergies and Intolerances

Some children may have adverse reactions to certain foods, such as allergies or intolerances. Examples of such foods include:

  • Peanuts
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Shellfish, etc.

Symptoms can vary widely but may include gastrointestinal symptoms such as: 

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Vomiting

Treatment involves identifying and avoiding trigger foods, and in the case of severe allergies, carrying emergency medication.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

IBD includes conditions like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. 

Symptoms may include: 

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Bloody stools
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue


Also known as the stomach flu, is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines which is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections. 

It leads to symptoms like: 

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomach cramps
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever

Treatment focuses on rehydration, rest, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

IBS is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. Symptoms may vary but can include diarrhoea, constipation, or alternating between the two.

Management may involve: 

  • Dietary modifications
  • Stress reduction techniques
  • And occasionally medication, as guided by a healthcare professional
ibs in children
Image Source:


When To See A Doctor

It is important to consult a doctor if any of the following symptoms occur in a child.

  • Persistent or severe abdominal pain
  • Frequent vomiting or diarrhoea
  • Blood in stool or vomit
  • Poor weight gain or growth
  • Refusal to eat or drink
  • Persistent fever
  • Signs of dehydration (excessive thirst, dry mouth, decreased urination)
  • Significant changes in bowel habits or stool appearance
  • Concerns about food allergies or intolerances
  • Family history of gastrointestinal conditions
  • Any other persistent or concerning gastrointestinal symptoms


It’s important to note that each child’s condition may differ, and proper diagnosis and management should be determined by a healthcare professional specializing in pediatric gastrointestinal health. If your child experiences persistent or severe gastrointestinal symptoms, it is recommended to consult with a pediatric gastroenterologist for evaluation and appropriate treatment.


Q1. What is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in children?

Ans. The most common gastrointestinal disorder in children is gastroenteritis, which refers to inflammation of the stomach and intestines, usually caused by viral or bacterial infections.

Q2. Which food is good for gastric in kids?

Ans. Some foods that are generally good for gastric health in kids include:

  • High-fibre foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Probiotic-rich foods such as yoghurt or kefir.
  • Lean proteins like chicken, fish, or tofu.
  • Adequate fluid intake, including water and diluted fruit juices.

Q3. How do you prevent gastritis in children?

Ans. To prevent gastritis in children:

  • Encourage a healthy diet and avoid trigger foods like spicy or greasy foods.
  • Ensure regular and balanced meals, and promote hydration.
  • Teach and encourage good hand hygiene.
  • Consult a healthcare professional if medications may increase the risk of gastritis.
07 Sep 2023
The Science of Kidney and Dialysis

The Science of Kidney and Dialysis

When it comes to kidney failure, dialysis is one of the most beneficial and effective treatment options for people whose condition is not bad enough to make a kidney transplant a necessity. By the utilization of some specialized biological solutions along with the incorporation of technology, dialysis is an artificial method to purify blood and mimic kidney functioning. 

Therefore, this article covers everything you need to know about kidney functioning and the role of dialysis in giving people with kidney failure a healthy life. 

5 Primary Functions Of Kidneys

Kidneys are responsible for performing 5 crucial functions in your body:

1. Filtration Of Blood

Kidneys aid in excretion by filtering out the unwanted components from the blood to form urine. Some examples of waste products generated after the filtration of blood by kidneys include excessive fluids and electrolytes. 

2. Maintaining The Fluid And Electrolyte Balance

Kidneys play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in your body along with the maintenance of acid-base levels. Examples of such  electrolytes include:

  • Sodium 
  • Potassium 
  • Calcium 

3. Regulation Of Blood Pressure

Having too high blood pressure can lead to diseases like hypertension whereas extremely low blood pressure causes hypotension. Both of these conditions can affect your day-to-day life negatively. Therefore, kidneys help in maintaining normal blood pressure by impacting your blood volume along with looking after the construction and dilation levels of your blood vessels.

4. Production Of Red Blood Cells

The main hormone that produces RBCs, that is, red blood cells is called erythropoietin. It functions by activating your bone marrow for red blood cell production. If your body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells, it can lead to a wide variety of health issues ranging from iron deficiency and ultimately causing anaemia. 

5. Activation Of Vitamin D

Vitamin D is one of the most important vitamins that your body needs to keep your bones healthy and strong. Kidneys help to activate vitamin D to make it beneficial for your body.

What Happens When Your Kidneys Stop Working?

When your kidneys lose their ability to perform their functions efficiently, the development of a disease called kidney dysfunction, renal disease or simply kidney disease occurs. Improper functioning of kidneys leads to a broad range of health complications such as: 

  • Excessive accumulation of waste products in your bloodstream leads to uremia
  • Fluid retention resulting in oedema
  • Muscle weakness
  • Irregular and abnormal heart rhythms
  • Disruption of electrolyte balances
  • High blood pressure
  • Anemia
  • Increase in the possibility of bone fractures
  • Acid-Base imbalances
  • Increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • Decrease in urine output
  • Impaired immunity

As the renal disease progresses further it turns into chronic kidney disease (CKD) finally taking the form of End-stage renal disease (ESRD) When the end-stage renal disease worsens, the need for medical interventions such as dialysis or kidney transplantation becomes necessary. 

What Is Dialysis And How Does It Help?

The process of dialysis works by acting the same as your kidneys to replace their primary functions and provide blood purification in a way that is almost the same as that done by kidneys except the process is artificial. For people having ESRD or end-stage renal disease, dialysis can provide relief and with regular management, patients can lead a healthy life. 

There are 2 main types of dialysis procedures:

1. Hemodialysis

An equipment called a dialyser is used to remove and filter out the blood from a patient’s body. The dialyzer has a semi-permeable membrane that retains elements like proteins and blood cells as they are beneficial and necessary for your body while eliminating waste materials and extra fluids. Thus, the process carries out the cleaning of blood to finally return the purified blood to your body. 

2. Peritoneal Dialysis

In this method, an instrument called a catheter is inserted into your abdominal cavity and the peritoneal membrane, a membrane that lines your abdominal cavity, is utilized as a natural filter. Following this, a liquid called dialysate solution is added to the peritoneal cavity. 

Dialysate solution acts as a magnet that attracts the waste materials and other additional fluids from the blood. 

When the dialysate solution reaches its capacity and it cannot filter the blood anymore, it is extracted and a fresh solution is then re-added in its place. These cycles are then repeated to facilitate proper filtration and excretion.

Benefits of dialysis

The key benefits of dialysis include:

  • Efficient waste removal which prevents kidney dysfunction symptoms from getting worse 
  • Removal of excessive fluids to create proper fluid-electrolyte balance in the body
  • Electrolyte regulation to control the amount of electrolytes present in the blood
  • Maintenance of normal blood pressure levels
  • Alleviation of the symptoms causing pain and discount
  • Improved overall quality of life
  • Elongation of the lifespan of the patient
  • For people who want to get kidney transplantation, dialysis acts as an excellent bridge before the transplantation


In conclusion, if you follow your doctor’s instructions correctly and have regular visits to get dialysis done, you can lead a normal life even with end-stage renal disease.

However, it is essential to note that regular dialysis sessions are important for the correct maintenance of the effects of dialysis. Plus, adopting healthy lifestyle habits along with strictly following your doctor’s guidelines can help to maximize the benefits of dialysis.