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Month: October 2023

28 Oct 2023
​​All You Need to Know About Nephrology & Nephrologist ?

​​All You Need to Know About Nephrology & Nephrologist

Nephrology and nephrologists play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related conditions. This article provides an overview of their role, expertise, and the conditions they manage, helping patients understand the importance of nephrology in their kidney health.

What is Nephrology?

Nephrology is a medical specialty that focuses on the study, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney diseases and disorders. It encompasses the evaluation and management of various conditions affecting the kidneys, including: 

  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Kidney Stones
  • Kidney Infections
  • Electrolyte Imbalances
  • Kidney Failure, Etc

Nephrologists, specialized physicians in nephrology, possess in-depth knowledge and expertise in kidney function, anatomy, and the complex interactions of the kidneys with other body systems. They utilize a combination of diagnostic tools to assess kidney health and formulate personalized treatment plans. 

Some examples of these tools include: 

  • Medical History Review
  • Physical Examination
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Imaging Studies

Nephrologists work closely with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care to patients, aiming to preserve kidney function, manage kidney-related conditions, and improve overall well-being.

The Vital Roles of Nephrologists in Kidney Care: Understanding their Responsibilities 

Nephrologists work closely with other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, surgeons, and urologists, to provide comprehensive care to patients with kidney disorders. 

Some of their major responsibilities include: 

Diagnosis and Treatment

Nephrologists are responsible for diagnosing and treating a wide range of kidney-related conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections, etc. They utilize their expertise in interpreting the following medical tests to make accurate diagnoses and develop appropriate treatment plans:

  • blood and urine analyses
  • imaging studies
  • kidney biopsies

Treatment approaches may include:

  • Medication Management
  • Lifestyle Modifications
  • Dietary Adjustments
  • Dialysis (Hemodialysis Or Peritoneal Dialysis)
  • Kidney Transplantation

Management of Chronic Kidney Disease

Managing chronic kidney disease by implementing strategies to slow its progression and addressing complications. This may involve:  

  • Medication management
  • Dietary recommendations
  • Blood pressure control
  • Fluid balance management
  • And, coordination with other healthcare professionals

Dialysis and Transplantation

Nephrologists oversee dialysis treatments (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) for patients who require renal replacement therapy. They collaborate with surgical teams to evaluate and manage patients undergoing kidney transplantation.

Hypertension Management

Nephrologists manage hypertension (high blood pressure) related to kidney problems. They assess and treat high blood pressure to prevent further kidney damage and related heart complications.

Patient Education and Counselling 

Nephrologists educate and counsel patients and families on kidney health, disease prevention, medication adherence, diet modifications, and lifestyle changes. They empower patients to take an active role in their care and make informed decisions about their kidney health.

Research and Advancements

Nephrologists conduct research to advance knowledge about kidney diseases, develop innovative treatments, and enhance patient outcomes. Their research contributes to advancements in diagnosing and managing kidney-related conditions, leading to improved care and better outcomes for patients.

Common Kidney Conditions Managed by Nephrologists

  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI)
  • Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units)
  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
  • Kidney stones
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Electrolyte and acid-base imbalances

When to see a nephrologist?

  • If you have persistent or recurrent urinary tract infections.
  • If you have high blood pressure that is difficult to control.
  • If you have chronic kidney disease (CKD) or have been diagnosed with kidney damage.
  • If you have protein or blood in your urine.
  • If you have kidney stones or a history of kidney stone formation.
  • If you experience unexplained changes in urine colour, frequency, or volume.
  • If you have swelling or oedema in your legs, ankles, or face.
  • If you have a family history of kidney disease or polycystic kidney disease (PKD).
  • If you have concerns about your kidney health or have been referred by your primary care physician.


In conclusion, nephrology and nephrologists are essential in diagnosing, treating, and managing kidney-related conditions. They have specialized knowledge to optimize kidney health. If you have kidney health concerns, consulting a nephrologist can provide you with the necessary evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment options specific to your condition.


Q1. What organ does a nephrologist treat?

Ans. A nephrologist primarily treats the kidneys, which are the organs responsible for filtering waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream, maintaining electrolyte balance, and regulating blood pressure.

Q2. What are the most common nephrology diseases?

Ans. Hypertension or high blood pressure, metabolic disorders related to the kidney, electrolyte and fluid imbalances, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and glomerulonephritis are some of the most common nephrology diseases.

Q3. What is the difference between a nephrologist and a urologist?

Ans. Nephrologists focus on the medical management and treatment of kidney diseases, while urologists specialize in the surgical and medical treatment of urinary system disorders. Nephrologists primarily handle internal kidney-related conditions, while urologists address urinary system disorders, including surgical interventions.

21 Oct 2023
Habits for prevention of kidney stones

Habits For Prevention Of Kidney Stones

A kidney stone is a solid object made of urine crystals. Natural substances in urine enable the prevention of kidney stones and stop them from developing and posing issues for the majority of people. Also, you must learn about the foods to avoid kidney stones.

What contributes most to preventing kidney stone formation?

Drinking a lot of water daily is one of the finest things you can do for the prevention of kidney stones. Less urine may be produced due to water loss from sweat, which may be brought on by tiresome activities or just the summer heat. Avoid kidney stones by keeping yourself hydrated.

Drink water to hydrate. Keep yourself hydrated, especially when exercising or doing other activities that make you sweat a lot. This is the best way to prevent kidney stones.

The most typical type of stone is calcium oxalate.

Foods with high oxalate content include peanuts, rhubarb, spinach, beets, Swiss chard, chocolate, and sweet potatoes, to name a few. At mealtime, consume oxalate-rich meals and calcium-containing foods like milk, yogurt, and some cheeses. Before accessing the kidneys, the oxalate and calcium from the diets are bound to one another in the stomach and intestines. Kidney stones will be less prone to occur as a result of this. Prevention of kidney stones is ensured as a result of this.  Your risk of developing kidney stones increases with a low-calcium diet.

Reduce your consumption of high-purine foods like red meat for the prevention of kidney stones. These are some of the foods you need to avoid with kidney stones.

Consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products. Reduce your sugar-sweetened items, especially those containing high fructose corn syrup. Limit your alcohol intake because it can raise your blood uric acid levels, and stay away from crash diets for the same reason. Follow this diet to prevent kidney stones. Although there can be many diets to prevent kidney stones proposed by your dietician, following this can be ideal.


Dietary Advice for Kidney Stones

  • Drink 2-3 quarts of fluid per day.
    This includes any fluid, except alcohol, that has been proven to have a positive effect, such as water, coffee, and lemonade.
  • Reduce your intake of foods high in oxalate.
    Wheat bran, chocolate, nuts, beets, spinach, a variety of berries, tea, and rhubarb from your diet should be eliminated. This is the ideal diet to prevent kidney stones. 


  • Consume adequate dietary calcium.
    Daily consumption of dairy dishes will reduce the likelihood of calcium stone development. Ingest meals with. This is the best way to prevent kidney stones. 
    Dietary calcium for kidney stones
  • Prevent supplemental calcium intake.
    Your doctor should customise your calcium supplements.
  • Consume a reasonable amount of protein.
    The right amount of protein ingested by you can help in the prevention of kidney stones.
  • Reduce your intake of salt.
    Consuming less salt is crucial for blood pressure management. Use less salt in foods to avoid kidney stones.
  • Keep vitamin C pills at low dosages.
    Intake greater than 1000 mg daily may produce more oxalate in your body.

There are numerous strategies to control it, whether it be arthritis. Many times, the pain brought on by inflammation, arthritis, or a minor injury will go away on its own. Avoid kidney stones by following the right diet to prevent kidney stones.

Home remedies increase your level of comfort and assist you in managing symptoms.

However, if the pain is moderate to severe or the symptoms linger or worsen, you may need medical attention. 

Include these foods in your diet to prevent kidney stones. 

RICE can help with sprains and strains.

Remembering the acronym “RICE” can be beneficial if you’ve twisted your leg, fallen, injured, or sprained your knee. It can ensure the prevention of kidney stones. What else in the process can help in the prevention of kidney stones?

  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevation

Step away from the ground and place an ice bag or cold compress on the knee. Follow the prescribed diet to avoid kidney stones and keep yourself healthy. To reduce swelling, wrap a compression bandage across your knee, but not too tightly so that it restricts circulation. Maintain an elevated foot while you’re sleeping. Avoid kidney stones by doing all of these things.


14 Oct 2023
Heart Screening when why are they necessary

Heart Screenings: When & Why Are They Necessary?

Screening exams aim at detecting the presence of a disease at an early stage and treating it as soon as possible to prevent it from progressing. 

According to various studies and research by the National Institutes of Health, cardiac diseases, generally called heart diseases such as CAD or Coronary Artery Disease that lead to a heart attack are one of the primary causes of death in the United States of America. 

The main risk factors of heart disease include—

  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Cholesterol 
  • Age 
  • Family History Of Heart Disease
  • Tobacco Intake 
  • Smoking
  • Gender
  • Obesity
  • Lack Of Physical Activity
  • Diabetes

Heart screenings are therefore crucial for the timely identification of the risk factors and other causes that may lead to heart disease. 

Who Should Go For Heart Screening?

The American Heart Association says that heart screening tests particularly for coronary artery disease (CAD) must begin at the age of 20 years. 

The best way to find out and prevent the onset of heart disease is to take regular check-up appointments for a thorough examination of your overall health. These can include tests for—

  • BMI: Body Mass Index 
  • Weight 
  • Blood Pressure 
  • Blood Cholesterol Levels 
  • Blood Glucose Levels

Cholesterol tests and blood pressure tests are recommended for all individuals above the age of 20.

Tests for blood pressure are crucial because the risk of developing high blood pressure increases after the age of 65. 

Blood pressure is also one of the leading causes and risk factors of cardiovascular disorders. High blood pressure doesn’t show any symptoms and therefore regularly measuring the blood pressure is a crucial part of heart screening. 

People who are at risk of heart disease must undergo a test for cholesterol screening every 4 to 6 years. Similarly, for people who have a blood pressure level lower than 120/80 mm of Hg frequently, screening is recommended after every 2 years.

Since older individuals are more susceptible to risk factors that are directly related to heart disease, blood glucose screening is essential for people who have crossed the 45-year mark. 

However, obese individuals should start with blood glucose screening as early as 40 years of age. 

More complex and detailed heart screening tests are essential for—

  • Obese individuals
  • People older than 40 years
  • People who are not physically active
  • Chronic smokers
  • Diabetics
  • People who have a history of family suffering from heart disease
  • People with physical disabilities
  • People who were diagnosed with any kind of heart disorders such as those related to high blood pressure, high cholesterol etc. in the past. 

4 Types Of Heart Screening Tests And Their Significance

The most recommended heart screening exams include—

1. EKG or Electrocardiogram 

An electrocardiogram is used to analyze your heart rhythm along with its electrical signaling system. 

It is recommended for people who have structural abnormalities such as an enlarged heart or those with risk factors of heart disease that show symptoms like—

  • Shortness Of Breath
  • Chest Pain
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Irregular Heartbeats
  • Heart Palpitations

It is also beneficial for people with—

  • Diabetes
  • Family history of cardiac disorders

2. Exercise Stress Test

An exercise stress test is used to determine if your heart starts showing abnormal functions or abrupt changes while exercising.

People who are at risk of heart disease including diabetics and those who have symptoms of heart disease can take the test.

3. Echocardiogram

An echocardiogram is used to detect the size as well as the shape of your heart and analyze it for the presence of a structural abnormality associated with important cardiovascular organs such as–

  • Heart Chambers 
  • Heart Walls
  • Blood Vessels
  • Heart Valves

A doctor will recommend you take an echocardiogram test if he suspects that your chest pain and other heart disease-related symptoms are occurring because of your heart’s structural abnormalities.

4. Calcium Scoring 

In a calcium scoring test, a computed tomography or CT scan is used to find out if calcium buildup is present in the plaque that has accumulated on the walls of your arteries. 

The test is highly beneficial for people who are at moderate risk of heart disease as it can accurately help in the early identification of—

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Heart attack

Other than these, blood tests to measure the level of cholesterol and triglycerides are also essential because they have a direct impact on your heart health. These tests include measuring your—

  • Total Blood Cholesterol Level 
  • Low-density Lipoprotein Or LDL cholesterol (Bad Cholesterol)
  • High-density Lipoprotein Or HDL Cholesterol (Good Cholesterol) 
  • Triglycerides


While heart screenings are significant to help you stay away, and timely get rid of cardiac diseases, taking the right precautions to keep your cardiovascular health maintained is equally important. 

Regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, avoiding tobacco and cigarettes, limiting alcohol intake and having regular checkups for a comprehensive evaluation of your overall health are some steps you can take to have a healthy cardiovascular system.

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03 Oct 2023
Causes of Cardiac arrest in Young Adults

Causes of cardiac arrest in young adults – Explained!

An 8-year-old kid died because of a cardiac arrest while kicking a football.

A 21-year-old singer passes away after complaining about chest pain during his concert.

A 16-year-old girl suddenly faints while playing basketball. Upon reaching the hospital doctor declares her dead due to a cardiac arrest.

Although rare, the cases of young people dying because of a sudden and unexpected cardiac arrest or a heart attack have seen a major hike within the past few years.

As per a study conducted by the CDC (Centres For Disease Control And Prevention) more than 2000 young adults, that is, people aged below 25 years die every year because of cardiac arrest in the United States of America.

Most of these deaths are sudden and unexpected with almost zero alarming factors which can indicate or predict the possibility of their occurrence in advance.

They usually attack healthy young individuals at the time of activities such as physical exercise or while playing a sport. In some cases, cardiac arrest can even occur while sleeping.

Understanding the causes and risk factors of cardiac arrest in young adults is therefore important for the timely identification and elimination of any controllable factors that can be avoided.

Here is a list explaining the 4 primary causes of cardiac arrest in young adults—

1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a hereditary condition in which the muscle cells present in your ventricles (the lower chambers of your heart) grow thicker than normal. It causes the thickening of the heart muscle which ultimately interferes with normal heart functioning by creating problems in efficient pumping of the blood.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of cardiac arrest among young adults because of its unrecognizable nature that often remains undiagnosed because it doesn’t show any symptoms.

However, only in a few rare cases, thickened heart muscle might show symptoms like—

Chest pain that occurs particularly while exercising
Faster heartbeats (heart palpitations)
Abnormal or irregular heart rhythm
Shortness of breath
Heart murmur (sound of the heartbeat)

These symptoms worsen when the body is in a state of exhaustion due to sports or has undergone extensive physical exercise.

It is advisable to visit a doctor as soon as the chest pain occurs or if you find difficulty in breathing.

2. Heart Rhythm Disorders

Primary arrhythmias or heart rhythm disorders cause cardiac arrest in people who have a structurally normal heart.

There are many types of arrhythmias but the ones that increase the risk of cardiac arrest in young adults include—

Long QT syndrome
Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
Brugada Syndrome

Among these long QT syndrome is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in young adults because it gives rise to rapid and abnormally chaotic heartbeats.

Long QT syndrome can occur because of—

Inheritance of altered DNA
Mineral imbalances
As a side effect of some other medical issues
Intake of certain drugs

While the symptoms usually remain hidden, commonly detectable symptoms include—

Sudden fainting

3. Commotio Cordis (Blunt Chest Injury)

Also known as blunt chest injury, commotio cordis is a condition that results in sudden death due to a cardiac arrest which occurs when some external force directly hits your chest.

It usually happens while playing sports like ice hockey, basketball, baseball etc. due to the chest getting hit by sports equipment or after coming in hard contact with another player.

Blind chest injury (commotio cordis) doesn’t bring a change in the structure of the heart. Likewise, it does not damage your heart muscles. Instead, it targets the electrical signaling of your heart ultimately resulting in ventricular fibrillation.

Ventricular fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia that causes irregular heartbeat. When it occurs, the heart rhythm becomes so irregular and so uncoordinated that most often it creates a medical emergency.

Anybody, from kids to teenagers to young adults who have a completely normal and healthy heart can suffer from commotio cordis at any age.

Therefore, it is one of the most widespread and common causes of death due to cardiac arrest in young adults.

4. Myocarditis

In Myocarditis, the myocardium, which is the main muscle of your heart, gets inflamed.

Its inflammation not only disables the heart from pumping blood efficiently but also results in several other negative effects that ultimately result in cardiac arrest.

These include—

Severe chest pain
Shortness of breath
A rapid heartbeat
Irregular heart rhythm that ultimately results in arrhythmia

Myocarditis is caused by the spread of an infection from a specific type of virus. In some cases, it can also happen due to adverse reactions towards a drug.


Young adults should visit their doctor regularly to check for cardiac health to avoid the risk. If you find that you are at a risk of cardiac arrest then avoiding strenuous physical activity including competitive sports can be a good step towards improving your heart health.